TWO years ago Howrey was one of the world’s 100 biggest law firms by revenue, with nearly 700 lawyers in eight countries. Profits exceeded $1m per partner. The American firm, which specialised in intellectual-property suits, had had several spectacular years in a row. But in 2009 profits were much less than expected and angry partners began to leave. Defections continued during the recession. After failed merger talks, Howrey shut its doors this March.
Though Howrey was the only big firm to collapse, the forces that destroyed it hit the whole profession hard. Work on mergers and acquisitions (M&A) dried up and nothing similarly profitable took its place (bankruptcy, securities litigation and regulation were rare bright spots). Clients became keener to query their bills—and to demand alternatives to the convention of charging by the hour, such as flat, capped or contingent fees. Small and innovative firms began obliging them, and big firms increasingly felt forced to follow suit.
All this took a toll on the labour market. After a dozen years of growth, employment in America’s law industry, the world’s biggest, has declined for the past three years (see chart 1). The 250 biggest firms, according to an annual survey by the National Law Journal, shed more than 9,500 lawyers in 2009 and 2010, nearly 8% of the total. Many also deferred hiring, leaving new graduates in a glutted market. Legal-process outsourcing firms, which do not advise clients but do routine work such as reviewing documents, put further downward pressure on the demand for their talents. The pain was felt in Britain, easily the biggest legal market after America, and other countries too.